Philip II of Spain's reinforcement of the strategic corridor from Italy north along the Rhine added to these fears, and political discontent grew. showed that many French Catholics supported Navarre's claim, despite his Protestant faith. During this time, Jeanne d'Albret met and held talks with Catherine at Mâcon and Nérac. In France a civil war between Calvinists, called Huguenots (led by the Bourbons), and the Catholic majority population (led by the Guise family) turned into a complicated mess. The war was drawn to an official close after the Edict of Nantes, with the Peace of Vervins in May 1598. Marguerite, Queen of Navarre, the sister of King Francis I and mother of Jeanne d'Albret, also became part of the circle. He was formally received into the Catholic Church in 1593, and was crowned at Chartres in 1594 as League members maintained control of the Cathedral of Reims, and, sceptical of Henry's sincerity, continued to oppose him. The posters were not Lutheran but were Zwinglian or "Sacramentarian" in the extreme nature of the anti-Catholic content—specifically, the absolute rejection of the Catholic doctrine of "Real Presence. In contrast to the previous hardline policies of Henry II and his father Francis I, they began introducing gradual concessions to Huguenots. Francis I, however, had no quarrel with the established religious order and did not support reformation. On 1 March, however, a faction of the Guise family's retainers attacked a Calvinist service in Wassy-sur-Blaise in Champagne, massacring the worshippers and most of the residents of the town. It is said that "the Spanish King is the only cause of all the troubles in France". The League presses began printing anti-royalist tracts under a variety of pseudonyms, while the Sorbonne proclaimed on 7 January 1589, that it was just and necessary to depose Henry III, and that any private citizen was morally free to commit regicide. English Civil War _____ was the war fought between supporters of the English monarchy and supporters of parliament. See l'Hôpital speech to the Estates General at Orléans of 1560. Amidst fears of Huguenot reprisals for the murder, the Duke of Guise and his supporters acted. It entailed rebellions against the crown, inter-communal violence and a struggle between moderate Catholics and radicals. phi 445. need help asap phi 445. Philip Benedict, ‘Un roi, une loi, deux fois: Parameters for the History of Catholic–Protestant Co-existence in France, 1555–1685’, in O. Grell & B. Scribner (eds), Tolerance and Intolerance in the European Reformation (1996), pp. Foreign powers were sucked into the conflict. He was the leading minister of Geneva who invited John Calvin to serve there. [1]—Alexis de Tocqueville, L’Ancien régime… However, the House of Guise, having an advantage in the King's wife, Mary, Queen of Scots, who was their niece, moved quickly to exploit the situation at the expense of their rivals, the House of Montmorency. First, Bohemia insisted on electing a Protestant leader, and employed Frederick V as the new king. Historians estimate that 2,000 Huguenots were killed in Paris and thousands more in the provinces; in all, perhaps 10,000 people were killed. [22] At the same time, Francis was working on a policy of alliance with the Ottoman Empire. The Huguenot Jean de la Fontaine described the events: "The Protestants were engaged in prayer outside the walls, in conformity with the king's edict, when the Duke of Guise approached. Meanwhile, the regional situation disintegrated into disorder as both Catholics and Protestants armed themselves in 'self defence'. [78] While it did not prompt renewed religious warfare, many Protestants chose to leave France rather than convert, with most moving to the Kingdom of England, Brandenburg-Prussia, the Dutch Republic and Switzerland. [33] (In the polemics that followed, the term "Huguenot" for France's Protestants came into widespread usage. [12] Furthermore, the reduction of salvation to a business scheme based on the 'good works for sale' system added to the injury. With that victory Henry's concerns then turned to the situation in Brittany where he promulgated the Edict of Nantes and sent Bellièvre and Brulart de Sillery to negotiate a peace with Spain. The sight of his blood enraged his followers, and a general massacre of the inhabitants of Vassy ensued. The French Wars of Religion (1562–1598) is the name of a period of civil infighting and military operations primarily between French Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). The French Wars of Religion were of fundamental importance to the course of British History in another way. At the conclusion of the conflict in 1598, the Protestant Henry of Navarre, heir to the French throne, converted to Catholicism and was crowned Henry IV of France. In early 1598, the king marched against Mercœur in person, and received his submission at Angers on 20 March 1598. 8 terms. Lefèvre's approach to the Scriptures influenced Luther's methodology on biblical interpretation. Francis I died on 31 March 1547 and was succeeded to the throne by his son Henry II, who continued the harsh religious policy that his father had followed during the last years of his reign. It echoed the succession crisis in England. This though might lead directly to civil war. That is, an apologie for the generall cause of Reformation, written against the sclaunders of the Pope and the League was translated from the version named Le Politique réformé… by Jean de Fregeville. 1776-1783 Marlborough's Wars 1701-1714 The Jacobite Rebellion 1745 Thus, a national council of clergy gathered on the banks of the Seine River in the town of Poissy in July 1561. Leslie was forced to flee to France where he composed, among other pamphlets, this treatise. Issues of religious reform exacerbated conflicts between the monarchy and the nobility, as in the French Wars of Religion. He and his troops controlled most of rural Normandy. 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