Risk Assessment Information System (RAIS) (1993). One of the best-known applications of the plastic was initiated in 1930, when the Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation (later the Union Carbide Corporation) introduced Vinylite, a copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate that became the standard material of long-playing phonograph records.  In a 1969 presentation given in Japan, P. L. Viola, a European researcher working for the European vinyl chloride industry, indicated, "every monomer used in V.C. Suciu, I et al.  In 1954, B.F. Goodrich Chemical stated that vinyl chloride caused liver injury upon short-term exposures. Public Health Reports. The US OSHA limits vinyl chloride exposure of workers to no more than 1 ppm for eight hours or 5 ppm for 15 minutes. Some processes use an absorber-stripper system to separate HCl from the chlorinated hydrocarbons, while other processes use a refrigerated continuous distillation system. Plasticized or Flexible PVC (Density: 1.1-1.35 g/cm3): Flexible PVC is formed by the addition of compatible plasticizers to PVC which lower the crystallinity. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Polyvinyl chloride is the third most widely produced plastic, after polyethylene and polypropylene. Vinyl chloride (CH2=CHCl), also known as chloroethylene, is most often obtained by reacting ethylene with oxygen and hydrogen chloride over a copper catalyst. Ethane sulfochlorination has been proposed as a route to produce vinyl chloride using sulfur instead of oxygen.. Weathering degradation of plastics results in their surface embrittlement and microcracking, yielding microparticles that continue on in the environment.  Vinyl chloride is a gas at normal atmospheric temperature and pressure. The main polymerization methods include suspension, emulsion, and bulk (mass) methods. May 2000, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United States Environmental Protection Agency, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, "Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM) - Chemical Economics Handbook (CEH) - IHS Markit", http://www.dhs.wisconsin.gov/eh/chemfs/fs/vc.htm, http://www.npi.gov.au/resource/vinyl-chloride-monomer-vcm, "Sur la Composition de la Liqueur des Hollandais et sur une nouvelle Substance éthérée", https://doi.org/10.1038/s41929-020-0431-3, http://aseh.net/resources/restored/resources/teaching-units/teaching-unit-better-living-through-chemistry/historical-sources/lesson-1/MCA-Vinal%20Chloride%20Safety%20Sheet-1954.pdf, http://www.pvc.org/en/p/vinyl-chloride-monomer-vcm, "Vinyl chloride: health effects, incident management and toxicology - GOV.UK", Epidemiologic Notes and Reports Angiosarcoma of the Liver Among Polyvinyl Chloride Workers – Kentucky, Federal Register: September 25, 2001 (Volume 66, Number 186), Information on the aerosol propellant controversy, ATSDR Toxicological Profile for chloroethene / vinyl chloride, CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Chemical Identifiers for Vinyl Chloride from CAMEO Chemicals, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vinyl_chloride&oldid=995859387, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. PVC is used in the manufacture of numerous products, including packaging films and water pipes. Learn how tinsel evolved from a source of lead poisoning to its present polyvinyl chloride (PVC) form. Learn feedstock, monomer and polymer prices and changes in a particular market or for a particular product group at a glance. Uninhibited vinyl chloride may be stored either under refrigeration or at normal atmospheric temperature in the absence of air or sunlight but only for a duration of a few days. The recycling code number of PVC is #3. Corrections? ", The bacteria species Nitrosomonas europaea can degrade a variety of halogenated compounds including trichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride. Vinyl chloride is one of typical plastics. Volume 45, Number 24. Toxicity Data for: Vinyl Chloride Monomer*LD50 (rat, inhalation): 18 pph /15M Vinyl Chloride Monomer* is an OSHA cancer suspect agent, ACGIH confirmed human carcinogen, and NTP and IARC human carcinogen. Viola, P.L. Nat Catal (2020). major industrial polymers: Polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Second only to polyethylene among the plastics in production and consumption, PVC is used in an enormous range of domestic and industrial products, from raincoats and shower curtains to window frames and indoor plumbing. 23:11, 479–786. In order to arrive at a product that remains flexible, especially at low temperatures, most PVC is heated and mixed with plasticizers, which are sometimes added in concentrations as high as 50 percent. When used for car components, PVC thus helps to reduce the risk of injuries in case of accidents. The ethylene formed can either be recycled or oxychlorinated and cracked in a conventional manner. Viola's findings in 1970 were a "red flag" to B.F. Goodrich and the industry. "Vinyl chloride, polyvinyl chloride, and vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymers." CHAP DHQ. Industry officials maintain that these substances are scrupulously controlled and are released from PVC in trace amounts that have not been proved harmful. long-chain carbon-based "organic" molecules) which name refers to the fact that in their semi-liquid state they are malleable, or have the property of plasticity.  In 1968, Mutchler and Kramer, two Dow researchers, reported their finding that exposures as low as 300 ppm caused liver damage in vinyl chloride workers thus confirming earlier animal data in humans. May 22–29, 1970. PVC bottles and containers, however, can be recycled into products such as drainage pipe and traffic cones. Poisons Information Monograph. In practice, the yield for EDC conversion is relatively low (50 to 60 percent). This production method is cheaper than preparing EDC from acetylene, which is why it has become the major route to vinyl chloride since the late 1950s. 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